Research Papers

Around 180 scientists from 8 nations have published research papers on GcMAF.

We ourselves have written 31 research papers, all peer reviewed and published in prestigious scientific journals or conferences.

9 papers in Autumn 2014 making 15 in the year so far
In the autumn of 2014 our scientific team published and presented at prestigious conferences, 9 peer-reviewed scientific studies that demonstrate a plethora of effects of GcMAF in vivo and in vitro.

Many of these biological effects of GcMAF had not been described before and they represent an epochal breakthrough in the field of immunotherapy of cancer and other diseases.

1. Four peer-reviewed papers describing the results obtained in vitro as well as results of The Swiss Protocol by Marco Ruggiero in clinical cases, have been accepted for publication and presentation at the 9th International Conference of Anticancer Research held at Porto Carras, Sithonia, Halkidiki, Greece, 6-10 October 2014.

These papers are published in a special issue of Anticancer Research, which is distributed to registrants during the Conference, as well as to all subscribing libraries and indexing services (print and online through the Stanford University HighWire Press).

The 9th International Conference of Anticancer Research is under the auspices of the major scientific societies involved in cancer research such as:

The Union for International Cancer Control (UICC)
The Asian and Pacific Federation of Clinical Biochemistry (APFCB)
The Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention (APOCP)
The Austrian Society for Radiation Oncology (ÖGRO)
The European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM)
The Hungarian Society of Epidemiology
The International Cancer Microenvironment Society (ICMS)
The International Geriatric Radiotherapy Group (IGRG)
The International Institute of Anticancer Research (IIAR)
The International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER)
The International Society of Oncology and Biomarkers (ISOBM)
The Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO)
The Latinamerican and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology (SLACOM)
The Lithuanian Society of Radiation Oncology (LSRT)
The North-Eastern German Society of Gynecological Oncology (NOGGO)
The Polish Society of Radiation Oncology (PSTRO)
The Portuguese Society of Radiotherapy – Oncology (SPRO)
The Society of Biotherapeutic Approaches, Japan
The Szeged Foundation for Cancer Research, Hungary
The Turkish Society for Electron Microscopy (TSEM)
The International Institute of Anticancer Research.

The three clinical studies presented at the Conference and describing the effects of The Swiss Protocol in incurable breast, pancreas and brain cancers are:

Marco Ruggiero, Jacopo J.V. Branca, David Noakes, Massimo Gulisano, Gabriele Morucci, Lynda Thyer, and Stefania Pacini.
Anticancer Res. 34(10): 5845-5847, 2014.

Lynda Thyer, Jacopo J.V. Branca, Margit Taubmann.
Anticancer  Res. 34(10): 5847-5849, 2014.

Jacopo J.V. Branca, Stefania Pacini and Marco Ruggiero.
Anticancer Res. 34(10): 5844-5845, 2014.

In the first of these studies it is described for the first time in history the eradication of a major oncogene (HER-2) in a breast cancer patient whose breast cancer was eradicated following The Swiss Protocol.

In the second study, the successful approach to metastatic pancreatic cancer is described along with the molecular interaction between oleic acid-GcMAF (OA-GcAMF or Goleic) and a major tumor suppressor gene (p53).

In the third study, the successful approach to incurable brain cancer is described along with the the molecular interaction between Goleic and a major oncogene involved in brain cancer (BCl-6). In this study, The Swiss Protocol for brain cancer by Marco Ruggiero, a protocol that involves the use of transcranial ultrasonography, is revealed for the first time. It is worth noticing that this study was performed in collaboration with a major oncology hospital in central London, UK.

In all three studies, Prof. Ruggiero and colleagues demonstrate for the first time that the plethora of biological activities observed when treating patients with Goleic has to be ascribed to the presence of intrinsically disordered domains (IDD) in the molecular structure of GcMAF.  An IDD is a domain that lacks a fixed or ordered three-dimensional structure.

Prof. Ruggiero discovered that GcMAF shows two IDDs, one in the first domain (IDD1), and one in the second domain (IDD2), in the proximity of the oleic acid-binding domain. As shown in the studies, the sequence of the IDD2 shows a peculiar arrangement of hydrophobic aminoacids in the region that binds oleic acid as well as an IDD composed by negatively- and positively- charged amino acids.

Prof. Ruggiero and colleagues also demonstrate, at the molecular level, that the effects observed with Goleic cannot be reproduced with GcMAF alone. This in turn demonstrates that Goleic and not GcMAF is the most efficient molecule to treat cancer as well as a number of other chronic conditions.

Another study by our research group demonstrates the effects of Goleic in multiple myeloma cells in vitro.

Rodney Smith, Emma Ward, Jacopo J.V. Branca, Gabriele Morucci and Stefania
Anticancer Res. 34(10): 6175-6177, 2014.

These data are consistent with clinical observation demonstrating a therapeutic effect of The Swiss Protocol in multiple myeloma patients.

It is worth noting that Anticancer Research, where these studies have been published, is an independent international peer-reviewed journal devoted to the rapid publication of high quality original articles and reviews on all aspects of experimental and clinical oncology. Anticancer Research was established in 1981 and the articles published in this journal are regularly indexed in all bibliographic services, including: Current Contents (Life Sciences), Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science), Index Medicus, Biological Abstracts, PubMed, Chemical Abstracts, Excerpta Medica, University of Sheffield Biomedical Information Service, Current Clinical Cancer, AIDS Abstracts, Elsevier Bibliographic Database, EMBASE, Compendex, GEOBASE, EMBiology, Elsevier BIOBASE, FLUIDEX, World Textiles, Scopus, Progress in Palliative Care, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Cancergram (International Cancer Research Data Bank), MEDLINE, Reference Update – RIS Inc., PASCAL-CNRS, Inpharma-Reactions (Datastar, BRS), CABS, Immunology Abstracts, Telegen Abstracts, Genetics Abstracts, Nutrition Research Newsletter, Dairy Science Abstracts, Current Titles in Dentistry, Inpharma Weekly, BioBase, MedBase, CAB Abstracts/Global Health Databases, Investigational Drugs Database, VINITI Abstracts Journal, Leeds Medical Information, PubsHub, Sociedad Iberoamericana de Información Cientifica (SIIC) Databases.

2. A clinical study in collaboration with a major Italian Hospital (the Hospital of Prato, Division of Nephrology) was accepted for presentation and publication at the annual meeting of the Italian Society of Nephrology in 2014. In this study, the effects of The Swiss Protocol by Marco Ruggiero in kidney disease and in kidney cancer are described. This study represents the very first conducted in collaboration with a major hospital of the Public Health Service.

This study is entitled:

–    Clinical experience of renal carcinoma immunotherapy with oleic acid complexed with deglycosylated vitamin D-binding protein by Aterini et al.

3. Two clinical case reports describing the effects of the Swiss Protocol have been accepted for presentation and publication at the 68th Congress of the The Italian Society of Anatomy. This scientific society is one of the oldest in the world and it was founded in 1929 by Nello Beccari, Luigi Castaldi and Emerico Luna under the auspices of Giulio Chiarugi. The official organ of the Society is the “Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology”, in which the proceedings of the annual meeting as an ordinary supplement are published.

The Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology was founded in 1901 by Giulio Chiarugi, Anatomist at Florence University, and hence ever devoted to the progress and diffusion of science in the fields of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology.

The Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology, which is listed in major databases including PubMed, was made famous by publishing a seminal paper by Duesberg and Ruggiero debunking the AIDS fraud (Ital J Anat Embryol. 2011;116(2):73-92. AIDS since 1984: no evidence for a new, viral epidemic–not even in Africa. Duesberg PH, Mandrioli D, McCormack A, Nicholson JM, Rasnick D, Fiala C, Koehnlein C, Bauer HH, Ruggiero M.).

The two clinical case papers describing the effects of The Swiss Protocol by Marco Ruggiero and published in the Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology are:

–    Gc-protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) induces ERBB2 shift in human breast cancer by Ruggiero et al. (It. J. Anat. Embryol. 119: 1S, 169, 2014).

Intra-tumoural nitric oxide release by macrophages activated by Gc-protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) by Ruggiero et al. (It. J. Anat. Embryol. 119: 1S, 170, 2014).

In addition to these 2 clinical case studies, 2 in vitro studies have been published in the Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology describing the effects of Goleic in human neurons and microglial cells. These studies demonstrate that Goleic eliminates the toxic side effects of chemotherapy.

–    Human and murine microglial cells: to experimental models to deeply understand the mechanism of microglia involvement in human brain diseases by Branca et al. (It. J. Anat. Embryol. 119: 1S, 21, 2014).

Gc-protein derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) counteracts the neuronal damage induced by oxaliplatin by Morucci et al. (It. J. Anat. Embryol. 119: 1S, 135, 2014).

With these new 9 studies, we have published so far 15 studies in 2014.

In fact, in addition to the 9 studies mentioned above, we have published a seminal paper describing the lesions in the autistic brain:

–    2014. A New Methodology of Viewing Extra-Axial Fluid and Cortical Abnormalities in Children with Autism via Transcranial Ultrasonography. Bradstreet JJ1, Pacini S2, Ruggiero M3.

A paper in the American Journal of Immunology describing clinical cases treated with The Swiss Protocol:

–    Ward, E., R. Smith, J.J.V. Branca, D. Noakes and G. Morucci et al., 2014. Clinical experience of cancer immunotherapy integrated with oleic acid complexed with de-glycosylated vitamin d binding protein. Am. J. Immunol., 10: 23-32.

A seminal paper in Anticancer Research:

–    Oleic Acid, deglycosylated vitamin D-binding protein, nitric oxide: a molecular triad made lethal to cancer.  Ruggiero M, Ward E, Smith R, Branca JJ, Noakes D, Morucci G, Taubmann M, Thyer L, Pacini S. Anticancer Res. 2014 Jul;34(7):3569-78.

A chapter on GcMAF in a best-seller book:

Healing the Symptoms Known as Autism – 2nd Edition Paperback – January 8, 2014 by Kerri Rivera  (Author), Kimberly McDaniel (Contributor), Daniel Bender (Contributor), Jim Humble (Contributor), Dr. Andreas Kalcker (Contributor), Dr. Marco Ruggiero (Contributor), Robert L. Sands (Contributor). ISBN-10: 0989289044. ISBN-13: 978-0989289047.

Two studies on the immunotherapy of cancer:

–    Clinical experience of integrative immunotherapy centred on oleic acid complexed with deglycosylated vitamin D-binding protein by Ward et al. (Abstr. P5.16, pag. 88).

–        Increased splenic blood flow following macrophage activation by oleic acid complexed with vitamin D-binding protein by Ward et al. (Abstr P4.20, pag. 81).

Two additional peer-reviewed papers are in press in “Anticancer Drugs” and in the “Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology”.

Prof. Ruggiero also wrote a chapter in a book that should be published by the end of the year and it is announced as a best-seller.

Here are those we have published ealier in 2014 on results in our clinics:

American Journal of Immunology 10 (1): 23-32, 2014

The first paper on the results in our Treatment Centre has been published.
The highlights of the results section include an average tumour reduction of 25% a week, and before and after ultrasonography scans of tumour shrinkage with measurements. Patient 3 is the most representative with a 27% reduction, and four other patients (not shown) with similar results. All 26 patients showed significant clinical improvements.

doi:10.3844/ajisp.2014.23.32 (

The clinical results paper locally

Two Posters on more results from our three European clinics

In May 2014 two additional studies describing our successful approach to cancer treatment (25% tumour shrinkage per week) have been accepted for presentation after exhaustive peer-review by a prestigious Scientific Committee. The Scientific Committee of the IX National Conference of the Italian Society of Immunology, Clinical Immunology and Allergology, accepted two studies of ours reporting our most recent successes in cancer treatment with Oleic-Acid-GcMAF (Goleic).

The dramatic results were presented to an international audience of Medical Doctors and Researchers gathered in Florence, Italy on May 28-31. The Conference was under the Patronage of the European Federation of Immunological Societies, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, the National Federation of the Italian Medical Associations, the Municipality of Florence, and the main University Hospital of Firenze (AOL Careggi). The patronage of such distinguished medical and scientific societies and institutions testimonies the international prestige of the Conference and, consequently, of the presented studies.

The first study, authored by Ward, Smith, Branca, Noakes, Morucci and Thyer, describes the successful integrative approach based on Goleic in cancer patients defined as incurable. The actual images of tumours shrinking on average 25% in one week were clearly presented and they received the appreciation of the highly qualified audience. We were particularly proud to show the images of a pancreas adenocarcinoma, one of the most rapidly lethal cancers, that not only shrunk in size, but is eventually became encapsulated, de facto turning into a benign tumour.

Click here: Clinical results with Goleic

The other study, authored by Ward, Smith, Branca, Noakes, Morucci, Pacini, Ruggiero and Thyer, describes the molecular mechanism of action at the basis of such stunning results. Here it is demonstrated that Goleic induces the synthesis of a powerful anticancer molecule that is called nitric oxide that in turns kills cancer cells, thus contributing to cancer eradication. With these results, we demonstrate another attack of Goleic on cancer that was not known before. This study is at the basis of a full paper that we aim at publishing in one of the most prestigious, peer-reviewed, scientific journals listed in the database of the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health of the USA.

Click here: Molecular mechanism and spleen

Our first clinic paper in AntiCancer Research, which covers results in the clinics, called A molecular triad made lethal to cancer.  AnticancerResearch